For every other php programmer who reads Rasmus's no framework mvc, these following lines are what they often finally remember.
3. Fast * Avoid include_once and require_once * Use APC and apc_store/apc_fetch for caching data that rarely changes
Eventhough include_once has its performance hit, some people avoid it by some rather simple code borrowed from their C experience. Here is how the code looks in general.
<?php if(defined(__FILE__)) return; define(__FILE__, true);
This is nearly identical to what you would use in a C header to prevent inclusion checks. But as the emergence of precompiled headers shows, even those folks are trying to reduce the expenditure of including & pre-processing the same file multiple times.
I do not deny that the include check above works. But it checks for double inclusion during execution, which is exactly what was wrong with include_once as well. Even worse, it hits APC really badly. But the situation takes a bit of context to understand - let us pick a 'real' library fubar (name changed to keep my job) which has been avoiding include_once. Here is how the logical dependency graph looks like :
In a moment of madness, you decide to make all includes properly for design coherence, especially for that doxygen output to look purty. But instead of using include_once as a sane man should, you remember the wisdom of elders and proceed to do includes. And then kick it up a notch with inclusion checks as illustrated above. But this what Zend (and by design APC, too) actually compiles up.
The nodes marked in red are actually never used because of the inclusion checks, but they are compiled and installed. Zend pollutes the function table and class table for such with a bunch of mangled names for each function - APC serves up a local copy of the same cached file for multiple inclusions, which all have the same mangled name - by ignoring redeclaration errors.
If you were using include_once, these files would have never been compiled. But the above solution *seems* to work in APC land, but in reality does not play very nice at high cache loads. And while debugging *cough* fubar, I ran into a very corner case mismatch issue.
During a cache slam or expunge - when the cache is being written to by one process, other processes do not hit the cache and fall back to zend compile calls. Now imagine such a cache fail happening mid-way in one request.
Now the executor has two types of opcode streams to deal with, one which is Zend fresh ! and one which is from the APC (Opcodes in a Can) freezer. Even though only a couple of opcodes in the normal opcodes stream is executed, the pre-execution phase of installing classes and functions in their respective tables runs into issues unknown thanks to early binding and late binding combinations, which was behind that bug from hell in class inhertiance. But more annoyingly, I cannot reproduce them in ideal testing conditions - wasting about two nights of my sleep in the process.
So I implore, beg and plead - please do not write code like this to avoid include_once, it just makes it slower, heavier on your memory footprint and increases cache lock contention. At least don't do it in the name of performance - I wrote this blog entry just because the guy who wrote fubar said "I didn't know it worked this way". There are a bunch of other such gotchas, which is currently my talk proposal for OSCON '07.
And just out of curiousity, I'm wondering whether an apc.always_include_once might help such code. But on the other hand I hate optimising for bad code, much cleaner to drop such files from cache - after all "they don't the deserve the performance".
So, trust me when I say this ... leave include checks to the experts !--
Too much is more than enough by definition.